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Sutras

The Vedic Mathematics Sutras.

This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full list of the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is not given in the text and comes from elsewhere.

This formula 'On the Flag' is not in the list given in Vedic Mathematics, but is referred to in the text.

The Sixteen Sutras.

 Sutra Translation By one more than the one before. All from 9 and the last from 10. Vertically and Cross-wise Transpose and Apply If the Samuccaya is the Same it is Zero If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero By Addition and by Subtraction By the Completion or Non-Completion Differential Calculus By the Deficiency Specific and General The Remainders by the Last Digit The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate By One Less than the One Before The Product of the Sum All the Multipliers

Note: The current Shankaracharya of Puri, Jagadguru Swami Nishchalananda Saraswati, has said (in 2008) he will be able to locate all the above sutras in the Vedic texts, but has so far only found one.

See also the article "The Sutras of Vedic Mathematics", by Kenneth Williams, published in the Journal of the Oriental Institute.

The sub Sutras.

 Sub sutra Translation Proportionately The Remainder Remains Constant The First by the First and the Last by the Last For 7 the Multiplicand is 143 By Osculation Lessen by the Deficiency Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and set up the Square of the Deficiency Last Totalling 10 Only the Last Terms The Sum of the Products By Alternative Elimination and Retention By Mere Observation The Product of the Sum is the Sum of the Products On the Flag